"The word bootstrap hints at the saying ‘pull oneself up by ones bootsraps’, which is rather close to doing the impossible. This was perhaps what Bradley Efron felt he had brought about when introducing his new idea in the *Annals of Mathematical Statistics*, 1979."

Hjorth (1994)

"In statistics bootstrapping is a method for estimating the sampling distribution of an estimator by resampling with replacement from the original sample."

Wikipedia (2006)

- FELSENSTEIN, J., 1985. Confidence Limits on Phylogenies: An Approach Using the Bootstrap.
*Evolution.*[Cited by 9782] (434.09/year) - EFRON, B., 1982. The jackknife, the bootstrap and other resampling plans. cambridge.org. [Cited by 2699] (105.70/year)
- EFRON, B. and R. TIBSHIRANI, 1993. An Introduction to the Bootstrap. books.google.com. [Cited by 9584] (659.41/year)
- EFRON, B., 1979. Bootstrap Methods: Another Look at the Jackknife.
*The Annals of Statistics.*[Cited by 2970] (104.09/year) - DAVISON, A.C. and D.V. HINKLEY, 1997. Bootstrap Methods and Their Application. books.google.com. [Cited by 1716] (162.90/year)
- HILLIS, D.M. and J.J. BULL, 1993. An Empirical Test of Bootstrapping as a Method for Assessing Confidence in Phylogenetic Analysis.
*Systematic Biology.*[Cited by 1130] (77.75/year) - MANLY, B.F.J., 2006. Randomization, Bootstrap And Monte Carlo Methods in Biology. books.google.com. [Cited by 1626] (1,059.81/year)
- KOHAVI, R., 1995. A study of cross-validation and bootstrap for accuracy estimation and model selection.
*Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Joint Conference ….*[Cited by 854] (68.13/year) - EFRON, B. and R. TIBSHIRANI, 1986. Bootstrap Methods for Standard Errors, Confidence Intervals, and Other Measures of Statistical ….
*Statistical Science.*[Cited by 1185] (55.03/year) - HALL, P.G., 1997. The Bootstrap and Edgeworth Expansion. books.google.com. [Cited by 1022] (97.02/year)

- ALFARO, M.E., S. ZOLLER and F. LUTZONI, 2003. … of Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo Sampling and Bootstrapping in Assessing Phylogenetic ….
*Molecular Biology and Evolution.*[Cited by 208] (45.87/year) - ALTMAN, D.G. and K. ANDERSEN, 1989. Bootstrap investigation of the stability of a Cox regression model..
*Statistics in Medicine.*[Cited by 107] (5.77/year) - ARBAUGH, W.A.,
*et al.*, 2001. Secure and reliable bootstrap architecture.*US Patent 6,185,678.*[Cited by 259] (39.64/year) - ATHREYA, K.B., 1987. Bootstrap of the Mean in the Infinite Variance Case.
*The Annals of Statistics.*[Cited by 86] (4.19/year) - BARROW, J.D., D.H. SONODA and S.P. BHAVSAR, 1984. A bootstrap resampling analysis of galaxy clustering.
*Royal Astronomical Society, Monthly Notices.*[Cited by 87] (3.70/year) - BASAWA, I.V.,
*et al.*, 1991. Bootstrapping Unstable First-Order Autoregressive Processes.*The Annals of Statistics.*[Cited by 66] (3.99/year) - BERAN, R., 1988. Prepivoting Test Statistics: A Bootstrap View of Asymptotic Refinements.
*Journal of the American Statistical Association.*[Cited by 188] (9.62/year) - BERRY, V. and O. GASCUEL, 1996. On the Interpretation of Bootstrap Trees: Appropriate Threshold of Clade Selection and Induced Gain.
*Molecular Biology and Evolution.*[Cited by 66] (5.72/year) - BICKEL, P.J. and D.A. FREEDMAN, 1981. Some Asymptotic Theory for the Bootstrap.
*The Annals of Statistics.*[Cited by 492] (18.54/year) - BOLLEN, K.A. and R.A. STINE, 1992. Bootstrapping Goodness-of-Fit Measures in Structural Equation Models.
*Sociological Methods & Research.*[Cited by 156] (10.04/year) - BOSE, A., 1988. Edgeworth Correction by Bootstrap in Autoregressions.
*The Annals of Statistics.*[Cited by 125] (6.40/year) - CARPENTER, J. and J. BITHELL, 2000. Bootstrap confidence intervals: when, which, what? A practical guide for medical statisticians..
*Stat Med.*[Cited by 147] (19.51/year) - CARRERA, R., R.D. HAZELTINE and M. KOTSCHENREUTHER, 1986. Island bootstrap current modification of the nonlinear dynamics of the tearing mode.
*Physics of Fluids.*[Cited by 158] (7.34/year) - CHERNICK, M.R., 1999. Bootstrap methods: a practioner's guide. New York, Wiley. [Cited by 233] (27.30/year)
- CHEW, G.F. and A. PIGNOTTI, 1968. Multiperipheral Bootstrap Model.
*Physical Review.*[Cited by 150] (3.79/year) - CHEW, G.F., 1962. Reciprocal Bootstrap Relationship of the Nucleon and the (3, 3) Resonance.
*Physical Review Letters.*[Cited by 120] (2.64/year) - CLARK, E.V. and S. BOOTSTRAPPING, 1996. Early Verbs, Event Types, and Inflections.
*Children's Language.*[Cited by 28] (2.43/year) - CRAMER, R.D., J.D. BUNCE and D.E. PATTERSON, 1988. Crossvalidation, bootstrapping, and partial least squares compared with multiple regression in ….
*Quant. Struct.-Act. Relat.*[Cited by 148] (7.58/year) - DAVISON, A.C. and D.V. HINKLEY, 1997. Bootstrap Methods and Their Application. books.google.com. [Cited by 1716] (162.90/year)
- DICICCIO, T.J. and B. EFRON, 1996. Bootstrap Confidence Intervals.
*Statistical Science.*[Cited by 160] (13.87/year) - DILL, S.,
*et al.*, 2003. SemTag and seeker: bootstrapping the semantic web via automated semantic annotation.*Proceedings of the twelfth international conference on World ….*[Cited by 204] (44.99/year) - DIXON, P.M., 2001. The Bootstrap and the Jackknife.
*Design and Analysis of Ecological Experiments.*[Cited by 120] (18.36/year) - DOUADY, C.J.,
*et al.*, 2003. Comparison of Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood Bootstrap Measures of Phylogenetic Reliability.*Molecular Biology and Evolution.*[Cited by 153] (33.74/year) - EFRON, B. and G. GONG, 1983. A Leisurely Look at the Bootstrap, the Jackknife, and Cross-Validation.
*The American Statistician.*[Cited by 881] (35.91/year) - EFRON, B. and R. TIBSHIRANI, 1986. Bootstrap Methods for Standard Errors, Confidence Intervals, and Other Measures of Statistical ….
*Statistical Science.*[Cited by 1185] (55.03/year) - EFRON, B. and R. TIBSHIRANI, 1993. An Introduction to the Bootstrap. books.google.com. [Cited by 9584] (659.41/year)
- EFRON, B. and R. TIBSHIRANI, 1997. Improvements on Cross-Validation: The. 632+ Bootstrap Method.
*Journal of the American Statistical Association.*[Cited by 234] (22.21/year) - EFRON, B. and R.J. TIBSHIRANI, 1993. ˜ An œintroduction to the bootstrap Monographs on statistics and applied probability. CRC Press. [Cited by 171] (11.77/year)
- EFRON, B., 1979. Bootstrap Methods: Another Look at the Jackknife.
*The Annals of Statistics.*[Cited by 2970] (104.09/year) - EFRON, B., 1981. Censored Data and the Bootstrap.
*Journal of the American Statistical Association.*[Cited by 196] (7.39/year) - EFRON, B., 1982. The jackknife, the bootstrap and other resampling plans. cambridge.org. [Cited by 2699] (105.70/year)
- EFRON, B., 1987. Better Bootstrap Confidence Intervals.
*Journal of the American Statistical Association.*[Cited by 483] (23.52/year) - EFRON, B., 2003. Nonparametric estimates of standard error: The jackknife, the bootstrap and other methods.
*Biometrika.*[Cited by 158] (34.85/year) - EFRON, B., E. HALLORAN and S. HOLMES, 1996. Bootstrap confidence levels for phylogenetic trees.
*Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.*[Cited by 221] (19.16/year) - ERIXON, P.,
*et al.*, 2003. Reliability of Bayesian Posterior Probabilities and Bootstrap Frequencies in Phylogenetics.*Systematic Biology.*[Cited by 123] (27.13/year) - FELSENSTEIN, J. and H. KISHINO, 1993. Is There Something Wrong with the Bootstrap on Phylogenies? A Reply to Hillis and Bull.
*Systematic Biology.*[Cited by 139] (9.56/year) - FELSENSTEIN, J., 1985. Confidence Limits on Phylogenies: An Approach Using the Bootstrap.
*Evolution.*[Cited by 9782] (434.09/year) - FELSENSTEIN, J., 1985. Confidence intervals on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap.
*Evolution.*[Cited by 140] (6.21/year) - FRAUTSCHI, S., 1971. Statistical Bootstrap Model of Hadrons.
*Physical Review D.*[Cited by 174] (4.76/year) - FREEDMAN, D.A. and S.C. PETERS, 1984. Bootstrapping a Regression Equation: Some Empirical Results.
*Journal of the American Statistical Association.*[Cited by 166] (7.05/year) - FREEDMAN, D.A., 1981. Bootstrapping Regression Models.
*The Annals of Statistics.*[Cited by 219] (8.25/year) - GINE, E. and J. ZINN, 1990. Bootstrapping General Empirical Measures.
*The Annals of Probability.*[Cited by 111] (6.33/year) - GORDON, N., D. SALMOND and C. EWING, 1995. Bayesian state estimation for tracking and guidance using the bootstrap filter.
*Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics.*[Cited by 67] (5.35/year) - HALL, P. and J.L. HOROWITZ, 1996. Bootstrap Critical Values for Tests Based on Generalized-Method-of-Moments Estimators.
*Econometrica.*[Cited by 154] (13.35/year) - HALL, P. and S.R. WILSON, 1991. Two Guidelines for Bootstrap Hypothesis Testing.
*Biometrics.*[Cited by 123] (7.44/year) - HALL, P., 1988. Theoretical Comparison of Bootstrap Confidence Intervals.
*The Annals of Statistics.*[Cited by 208] (10.65/year) - HALL, P., J.L. HOROWITZ and B.Y.I. JING, 2003. On blocking rules for the bootstrap with dependent data.
*Biometrika.*[Cited by 156] (34.40/year) - HALL, P.G., 1997. The Bootstrap and Edgeworth Expansion. books.google.com. [Cited by 1022] (97.02/year)
- HASEGAWA, M. and H. KISHINO, 1994. Accuracies of the simple methods for estimating the bootstrap probability of a maximum-likelihood ….
*Molecular biology and evolution.*[Cited by 128] (9.46/year) - HEDGES, S.B., 1992. The number of replications needed for accurate estimation of the bootstrap P value in phylogenetic ….
*Molecular biology and evolution.*[Cited by 203] (13.07/year) - HILLIS, D.M. and J.J. BULL, 1993. An Empirical Test of Bootstrapping as a Method for Assessing Confidence in Phylogenetic Analysis.
*Systematic Biology.*[Cited by 1130] (77.75/year) - HIRSHMAN, S.P., 1988. Finite-aspect-ratio effects on the bootstrap current in tokamaks.
*Physics of Fluids.*[Cited by 109] (5.58/year) - HJORTH, J.S.U., 1994. Computer Intensive Statistical Methods: Validation Model Selection and Bootstrap. books.google.com. [Cited by 194] (14.33/year)
- HOROWITZ, J.L., 2001. THE BOOTSTRAP.
*Handbook of Econometrics.*[Cited by 238] (36.42/year) - HOULBERG, W.A.,
*et al.*, 1997. Bootstrap current and neoclassical transport in tokamaks of arbitrary collisionality and aspect ….*Physics of Plasmas.*[Cited by 224] (21.26/year) - HUELSENBECK, J.P., D.M. HILLIS and R. JONES, 1996. Parametric bootstrapping in molecular phylogenetics: applications and performance.
*Molecular Zoology: Advances, Strategies, and Protocols.*[Cited by 155] (13.44/year) - KERR, M.K. and G.A. CHURCHILL, 2001. Bootstrapping cluster analysis: Assessing the reliability of conclusions from microarray experiments.
*Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.*[Cited by 252] (38.57/year) - KOHAVI, R., 1995. A study of cross-validation and bootstrap for accuracy estimation and model selection.
*Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Joint Conference ….*[Cited by 854] (68.13/year) - KUNSCH, H.R., 1989. The Jackknife and the Bootstrap for General Stationary Observations.
*The Annals of Statistics.*[Cited by 333] (17.97/year) - KUVAJA…, P., 1994. Software Process Assessment and Improvement: The BOOTSTRAP Approach. Blackwell. [Cited by 150] (11.08/year)
- KüNSCH, H.R., 1989. The jackknife and the bootstrap for general stationary observations.
*Annals of Statistics.*[Cited by 216] (11.65/year) - LANGEHEINE, R., J. PANNEKOEK and P.O.L. VAN, 1996. Bootstrapping Goodness-of-Fit Measures in Categorical Data Analysis.
*Sociological Methods & Research.*[Cited by 68] (5.90/year) - LEVICH, R.M. and L.R. THOMAS, 1994. The Significance of Technical Trading-Rule Profits in the Foreign Exchange Market: A Bootstrap …. [Cited by 193] (14.26/year)
- LI, G.S.H., 1996. Bootstrapping time series models.
*Econometric Reviews.*[Cited by 158] (13.70/year) - LIU, R.Y. and K. SINGH, 1992. Moving blocks jackknife and bootstrap capture weak dependence.
*Exploring the Limits of Bootstrap.*[Cited by 165] (10.62/year) - LIU, R.Y., 1988. Bootstrap Procedures under some Non-IID Models.
*The Annals of Statistics.*[Cited by 142] (7.27/year) - MADDALA, G.S. and S. WU, 1999. … Unit Root Tests with Panel Data and a New Simple Test: Evidence From Simulations and the Bootstrap.
*Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics.*[Cited by 554] (64.91/year) - MAMMEN, E., 1992. When does bootstrap work?: asymptotic results and simulations. Springer-Verlag. [Cited by 109] (7.02/year)
- MANLY, B.F.J., 2006. Randomization, Bootstrap And Monte Carlo Methods in Biology. books.google.com. [Cited by 1626] (1,059.81/year)
- MCLACHLAN, G.J., 1987. On Bootstrapping the Likelihood Ratio Test Stastistic for the Number of Components in a Normal ….
*Applied Statistics.*[Cited by 197] (9.59/year) - MEYER, J.S.,
*et al.*, 1986. Estimating Uncertainty in Population Growth Rates: Jackknife vs. Bootstrap Techniques.*Ecology.*[Cited by 275] (12.77/year) - MILLER, R.L.,
*et al.*, 1997. Stable equilibria for bootstrap-current-driven low aspect ratio tokamaks.*Physics of Plasmas.*[Cited by 111] (10.54/year) - MOONEY, C.Z. and R.D. DUVAL, 1993. Bootstrapping: A Nonparametric Approach to Statistical Inference. books.google.com. [Cited by 429] (29.52/year)
- MORGAN, J.L. and K. DEMUTH, 1996. Signal to Syntax: Bootstrapping from Speech to Grammar in Early Acquisition. books.google.com. [Cited by 196] (16.99/year)
- MUSSARDO, G., 1992. Off-critical statistical models: Factorized scattering theories and bootstrap program.
*Physics Reports.*[Cited by 135] (8.69/year) - NEWTON, M.A. and A.E. RAFTERY, 1994. Approximate Bayesian Inference with the Weighted Likelihood Bootstrap.
*Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B ( ….*[Cited by 234] (17.29/year) - NEWTON, M.A. and A.E. RAFTERY, 1994. Approximate Bayesian inference by the weighted likelihood bootstrap (with discussion).
*Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B.*[Cited by 135] (9.97/year) - PERRY, D.A.,
*et al.*, 1989. Bootstrapping in Ecosystems.*BioScience.*[Cited by 174] (9.39/year) - PINKER, S., 1987. The Bootstrapping Problem in Language Acquisition.
*Mechanisms of Language Acquisition.*[Cited by 145] (7.06/year) - POLITIS, D.N. and J.P. ROMANO, 1994. The Stationary Bootstrap..
*Journal of the American Statistical Association.*[Cited by 322] (23.79/year) - REDLICH, K. and L. TURKO, 1980. Phase transitions in the statistical bootstrap model with an internal symmetry.
*Zeitschrift für Physik C Particles and Fields.*[Cited by 106] (3.85/year) - RILO, E. and R. JONES, 1999. Learning Dictionaries for Information Extraction by Multi-Level Bootstrapping.
*Proceedings of the Sixteenth National Conference on ….*[Cited by 300] (35.15/year) - RUBIN, D.B., 1981. The Bayesian Bootstrap.
*The Annals of Statistics.*[Cited by 199] (7.50/year) - SANDERSON, M.J., 1989. Confidence limits on phylogenies: the bootstrap revisited.
*Cladistics.*[Cited by 131] (7.07/year) - SAUERBREI, W. and M. SCHUMACHER, 1992. A bootstrap resampling procedure for model building: application to the Cox regression model.
*Stat Med.*[Cited by 143] (9.21/year) - SAUTER, O., C. ANGIONI and Y.R. LIN-LIU, 1999. Neoclassical conductivity and bootstrap current formulas for general axisymmetric equilibria and ….
*Physics of Plasmas.*[Cited by 158] (18.51/year) - SHAO, J. and D. TU, 1995. The Jackknife and Bootstrap. books.google.com. [Cited by 769] (61.35/year)
- SIMAR, L. and P.W. WILSON, 1998. Sensitivity Analysis of Efficiency Scores: How to Bootstrap in Nonparametric Frontier Models.
*Management Science.*[Cited by 233] (24.44/year) - SINGH, K., 1981. On the Asymptotic Accuracy of Efron's Bootstrap.
*The Annals of Statistics.*[Cited by 219] (8.25/year) - SITNIKOVA, T., 1995. Interior-branch and bootstrap tests of phylogenetic trees.
*Molecular Biology and Evolution.*[Cited by 91] (7.26/year) - SULLIVAN, R., A. TIMMERMANN and H. WHITE, 1999. Data-Snooping, Technical Trading Rule Performance, and the Bootstrap.
*The Journal of Finance.*[Cited by 228] (26.72/year) - VISSCHER, P.M., R. THOMPSON and C.S. HALEY, 1996. Confidence Intervals in QTL Mapping by Bootstrapping.
*Genetics.*[Cited by 212] (18.38/year) - WICHMANN, F.A. and N.J. HILL, 2001. The psychometric function: II. Bootstrap-based confidence intervals and sampling.
*Perception & Psychophysics.*[Cited by 132] (20.20/year) - WILCOX, T.P.,
*et al.*, 2002. … relationships of the dwarf boas and a comparison of Bayesian and bootstrap measures of phylogenetic ….*Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.*[Cited by 174] (31.44/year) - WU, C.F.J., 1986. Jackknife, Bootstrap and Other Resampling Methods in Regression Analysis.
*The Annals of Statistics.*[Cited by 295] (13.70/year) - YAP, I.V. and R.J. NELSON, 1996. Winboot: a program for performing bootstrap analysis of binary data to determine the confidence ….
*IRRI (Int. Rice Res. Inst.) Res. Pap. Ser.*[Cited by 220] (19.07/year) - ZAMOLODCHIKOV, A.L., 1997. CONFORMAL BOOTSTRAP IN LIOUVILLE FIELD THEORY.
*Low-Dimensional Applications of Quantum Field Theory.*[Cited by 279] (26.49/year) - ZARNSTORFF, M.C.,
*et al.*, 1988. Bootstrap current in TFTR.*Physical Review Letters.*[Cited by 91] (4.66/year) - ZHARKIKH, A., 1992. Statistical properties of bootstrap estimation of phylogenetic variability from nucleotide sequences ….
*Molecular Biology and Evolution.*[Cited by 107] (6.89/year) - ZOUBIR, A.M. and B. BOASHASH, 1998. The bootstrap and its application in signal processing.
*Signal Processing Magazine, IEEE.*[Cited by 141] (14.79/year)